Origins of Old Catholicism

The historical record proves that the independent classical denomination of 1st century Orthodox Catholicism, as preserved by the Knights Templar, constitutes the original source and foundations of the 12th century Independent Church Movement, the derivative 19th century Old Catholic Movement and Reformed Catholic Movement, and the resulting early 20th century Liberal Catholic Movement.

Only 6 years after the Vatican grant of ecclesiastical sovereignty to the Order of the Temple of Solomon, in the Papal Bull Omne Datum Optimum of 1139 AD, the Templar denomination of Ancient Catholicism (which the Knights Templar recovered from the historical Temple of Solomon) served as the precedent and basis for creation of the 12th century Independent Church Movement:

‘Mariakerk’ (Saint Mary’s Church) in Utrecht, painting (1662 AD) by Pieter Jansz Saenredam, in Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid.

In 1145 AD, Pope Eugene III granted autonomy as a “cathedral chapter” to Bishops in Utrecht, Netherlands, which marked the formal beginning of the “Independent Church Movement”.

Pope Eugene III was the first Cistercian to become Pope, who trained at the Cistercian Monastery at Clairvaux, and was loyal to his close friend and mentor Bernard de Clairvaux [1] [2], the patron Saint of the Templar Order. The Templar Order was founded specifically as a mission for the Cistercian Order of Saint Bernard de Clairvaux, to recover the Ancient Priesthood of Solomon as the earliest foundations of Catholicism [3].

These facts prove that the Independent Church Movement was established as part of the original 12th century founding strategies for the Templar Order, and was intended to include the recognized denomination of Ancient Catholicism of the Knights Templar.

In 1215 AD, the Vatican’s Fourth Lateran Council established the acceptance of “independent” Churches (Canon 3), recognizing “their jurisdiction” (Canon 5), and confirming the autonomy of “cathedral churches” (Canons 10-11) to independently create their own Bishops (Canon 23), thereby recognizing them as Independent Churches [4].

In 1520 AD, Pope Leo X issued the Papal Bull Debitum Pastoralis (“Pastoral Duty”), which confirmed the right of Independent Bishops to perform Episcopal consecrations without a Papal mandate, and making the independent Clergy immune from Vatican judiciary jurisdiction, thereby upgrading the ecclesiastical independence of Utrecht. This grant was obtained by Philip of Burgundy, the Bishop of Utrecht, who was a Teutonic Knight (knighted in 1491 AD) and thus a leader of cultural Templarism [5].

Throughout this period of development of the Independent Church Movement (1145-1520 AD), Utrecht was a sovereign possession of the Teutonic Order under its Prince Grand Masters (for approximately 114 years from ca. 1466 AD until 1580 AD) [6]. The Teutonic Order was essentially a branch of the Knights Templar, founded in the Templar stronghold of Acre in 1190 AD [7] (under sovereignty of the Templar Principality of Antioch for 61 years from 1129 AD).

These facts prove that the Independent Church Movement was established by autonomous leaders of cultural Templarism, and is an authentic part of Templar heritage, and also evidence that it was intended to include the classical denomination of Ancient Catholicism as preserved by the Knights Templar.

In 1870 AD, the Independent Church Movement became the foundation of the “Old Catholic Movement”, when an estimated 50% of all practicing Catholics, led by the Independent Bishops of cultural Templarism, split from the Vatican Holy See of the Roman Catholic Church:

The Old Catholic Movement began primarily in opposition to the Vatican Council’s declaration of the new dogma of “Papal infallibility” in 1870 AD [8]. The dissenting minority consisted of 20% of Bishops, although they were Bishops of strategic influence in key countries, such that they represented a following which averages 50% of all practicing Roman Catholics [9]. As a result, the Old Catholic Movement was directly led and founded by an estimated 10% of Vatican Bishops, meaning that half of dissenting Bishops actually split to branch into Old Catholicism [10], taking with them half of the Catholic Faithful worldwide.

In 1871 AD, the Old Catholic Congress declared “Adherence to the Ancient Catholic faith… [and] the constitution [substance] of the Ancient Church”, with “rejection of the new dogmas”, as “preparation of the way for the reunion of the Christian confessions.” [11]

In 1879 AD, the “Reformed Catholic Movement” was established by the Irish Roman Catholic Bishop James O’Connor (1823-1890 AD), together with a group of Clergy who left the Vatican to be Independent Bishops. The Reformed movement was founded as embodying traditional Catholic practices, characterized by some Protestant and Evangelical doctrines of direct communion through the Holy Spirit [12].

In 1889 AD, the Declaration of Utrecht, by the Independent Bishops of the Old Catholic Movement, continued only the older version of classical Catholic doctrines as they were before 1054 AD (prior to the First Vatican Council), such that this derivative movement became popularly known as “Old Catholicism”.

The Declaration preserves “the primitive Church” of early 1st century Christianity as “the undivided Church of the first thousand years” (Article 1), and continues “the doctrine of the primitive Church” (Article 4), “in harmony with the teaching of the primitive Church” (Article 5), thereby “maintaining the faith of the undivided Church… especially the essential Christian truths professed by all the Christian confessions [denominations]” (Article 7) as “the doctrine of Jesus Christ” (Article 8).

The Declaration of Utrecht actually does not use the phrase “Old Catholic”. Rather, it specifically recognizes the “historical primacy… of the Ancient Church” (Article 2) and “Ancient Catholic doctrine” (Article 6). [13]

The 19th century “Old Catholic Movement” has its original founding roots in the 12th century Independent Church Movement driven by the Templar denomination of Ancient Catholicism; Its Congress adopted the “Ancient Catholic faith” of the “Ancient Church”; Its Declaration specifically refers to the “Ancient Church” as “Ancient Catholic”. For these compelling reasons, many scholars alternately (and interchangeably) refer to this derivative movement as “Ancient Catholicism”.

In 1892 AD, the original 12th century Independent Church Movement was brought to North America by the Jacobite Old Catholic Bishop Joseph Rene Vilatte.

In 1908 AD, the derivative 19th century Old Catholic Movement was brought to the United Kingdom by Archbishop Arnold Harris Mathew (French Roman Catholic Priest, made Doctor of Divinity by Pope Pius IX, first Old Catholic Bishop of Great Britain).

In 1916 AD, the “Liberal Catholic Movement” was established to revive and promote the more ancient heritage within the Independent Church Movement and Old Catholic Movement. This tradition of Liberal Old Catholicism was founded by Archbishop Arnold Harris Mathew, Bishop James Ingall Wedgewood (British Anglican, Sorbonne doctoral scholar), and Bishop Charles Webster Leadbeater (British Anglican Priest), based upon scholarship of esoteric Christianity from the Theosophical movement of 1875 AD, inspired by the ancient Egyptian priestly traditions and sacred wisdom underlying Christianity. Therefore, Liberal Catholicism was specifically based upon the original denomination of Ancient Catholicism as preserved by the Knights Templar. The Liberal Catholic Movement is the most widely recognized tradition within Old Catholicism [14]

As a result of all of the above facts, the Templar denomination of Ancient Catholicism is the earliest original source of, and the underlying foundations and basis for, all Independent Churches and Old Catholic Churches. For this reason, the Ancient Catholic Church from 1139 AD is historically and canonically the only Pontifical Catholicate which unifies and represents the Independent Church Movement from 1145 AD, the derivative Old Catholic Movement from 1870 AD, the related Reformed Catholic Movement of 1879 AD, and the resulting Liberal Catholic Movement from 1916 AD.

The apparent paradox of a Pontifical authority for “Independent” Churches is resolved by the original and authentic principles of doctrinal freedom, liturgical freedom, and autonomy for all of its member Churches. This allows the Ancient Catholic Church to serve as an international presence advancing the collective interests for the benefit of all its Churches in communion with the canonical Pontificate.

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Academic Source References

[1] Michael Lamy, Les Templiers: Ces Grand Seigneurs aux Blancs Manteaux, Auberon (1994), Bordeaux (1997), p.28.

[2] Keith Laidler, The Head of God: The Lost Treasure of the Templars, 1st Edition, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London (1998), p.177.

[3] Piers Paul Read, The Templars: The Dramatic History of the Knights Templar, the Most Powerful Military Order of the Crusades, 1st Edition, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London (1999), Phoenix Press, London (2001), Orion Publishing Group, London (2012), p.305.

[4] Malcolm Barber & Keith Bate, The Templars: Selected Sources, Manchester University Press (2002), p.2.

[5] Titus Flavius Josephus, Jewish War, Rome (78 AD); Translation by William Whiston (1736), Loeb Classical Library (1926), Volume II, Book 5, pp.212, 217.

[6] Charles G. Addison, The History of the Knights Templar (1842), p.6, citing the document De Aedificiis by the 5th century Byzantine historian Procopius of Caesarea as “Procopius de Oedificiis Justiniani, Lib. 5.”

[7] Charles G. Addison, The History of the Knights Templar (1842), pp.4-5, citing a Vatican document by the 13th century Pope Urban IV (Jacques Pantaleon, 1195-1264), the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, as “Pantaleon, Lib. iii. p. 82.”

[8] Collier’s Encyclopedia, Thomson Gale (1985), 1985 Edition, Macmillan Library Reference (1990), “Knights Templars”.

[9] Old Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), Ezekiel describing Egyptian Priesthood
inscriptions and figures inside the Temple of Solomon, Ezekiel 8:10-11.

[10] Titus Flavius Josephus, Jewish War, Rome (78 AD); Translation by William Whiston (1736), Loeb Classical Library (1926), Volume II; See pp.212, 217; The Temple contained “Babylonian” decorations of “mystical interpretation… a kind of image of the universe… all that was mystical in the heavens… [and] signs, representing living creatures.” (Book 5, Chapter 5, Part 4) Other symbols “signified the circle of the Zodiack” (Book 5, Chapter 5, Part 5).

[11] Titus Flavius Josephus, The Life of Flavius Josephus, Rome (ca. 96 AD); Translation by William Whiston (1736), Loeb Classical Library (1926), Volume I; See p.65; The Temple replica rebuilt by King Herod also “had the figures of living creatures in it” (Part 12).

[12] Prof. Arthur Samuel Peake (Editor), A Commentary on the Bible, T.C. & E.C. Jack, Ltd., London (1920), Ezekiel 8:10-11; Dr. Peake was Professor of Biblical Exegesis at University of Manchester, a Master of Arts and Doctor of Divinity.

[13] Karl Heinrich Rengstorf, Hirbet Qumran and the Problem of the Library of the Dead Sea Caves, German edition (1960), Translated by J.R. Wilkie, Leiden Press, Brill (1963).

[14] Jean-Baptiste Humbert, L’espace sacre a Qumran: Propositions pour l’Archeologie, Revue Biblique, Issue No.101 (1994), p.161-214.

[15] Minna and Kenneth Lonnqvist, Archaeology of the Hidden Qumran: The New Paradigm, Helsinki University Press, Helsinki (2002).

[16] Eric Meyers, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1997), Vol.2, pp.268-269.

[17] New Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), Matthew 2:13-15.

[18] Charles F. Potter, The Lost Years of Jesus Revealed, Random House Publishers (1958): “The… [Qumran] scrolls of the great Essene library… near the Dead Sea have given us an answer at last. That during those ‘lost years’ [ages 12-30] Jesus was a student at this Essene school is becoming increasingly apparent.”

[19] Menahem Mansoor, The Dead Sea Scrolls: A College Textbook and a Study Guide, Brill Publishers (1964), p.156: “the unknown years in the life of Jesus (ages 12-30) might have been spent with the sect” of the Essenes in Alexandria.

[20] H. Spencer Lewis, The Mystical Life of Jesus, Ancient and Mystical Order Rosae Crucis, San Jose (1982).

[21] New Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), Acts 24:5: “For we have found this man [Saint Paul] a pestilent fellow, and a mover of sedition among all the Jews throughout the world, and a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes.” (This conclusively proves that the Nazarenes, and thus also the Essenes, were never “Jewish”, as is widely and frequently claimed, but rather exclusively pre-Christian and early Christian, and wholly rejected by Judaism.)

[22] Frank Ely Gaebelein (Editor), The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: with the New International Version, 12 Volume Set, Zondervan Press (1988): The Gospel of “Matthew certainly used Nozaraios as an adjectival form of apo Nazaret (‘from Nazareth’ or ‘Nazarene’) even though the more acceptable adjective is Nazarenos” (Nazarene), which is correctly used elsewhere in the New Testament.

[23] Professor Ted Nottingham, The Mystery of the Essenes, Video of Lecture at Northwood Christian Church, Indianapolis Indiana (2010), at 24:04 and 26:00 min.

[24] Ethel Stephana Drower, The Secret Adam: A Study of Nasoraen Gnosis, Oxford University Press, London (1960), pp.ix, xiv, xvi: The original word “Nasuraiia” (Nazarenes) means the pre-Christian Gnostic Mandaen Nasoraens, who were persecuted by the Jews and thus forced to flee Jerusalem before its fall.

[25] Geoffrey W. Bromiley, The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Fully Revised Edition, Eerdmans Publishing Company (1982), Volume 3, “Nazarene”, pp.499-500.

[26] New Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), Matthew 2:23: “what had been spoken through the prophets might be fulfilled, ‘He will be called a Nazorean.’”

[27] Alan Butler & Stephen Dafoe, The Warriors and Bankers, Lewis Masonic, Surrey, England (2006), p.20.

[28] Henri de Curzon, La Règle du Temple, La Société de L’Histoire de France, Paris (1886), in Librairie Renouard: “Holy Communion”, “this Religion” (Rule 2); “the Religion of knighthood” (Rule 14); “type of new Religion”, “Religion of Knights”, “Religion by armed knighthood” (Rule 57), “in every Religion” as including the Templar Order (Rule 71).

[29] Henri de Curzon, La Règle du Temple, La Société de L’Histoire de France, Paris (1886), in Librairie Renouard: “Disciples” of the Grand Master as a Pontiff (Rule 7); “Patriarchate of the Temple of Solomon” in subtle Old Latin phrase (Rule 8); “divine service… dressed with the crown” as ecclesiastical sovereignty (Rule 9); Grand Mastery exercising independent ecclesiastical authority (Rule 62); “servants of the Church” under Grand Master as a Pontiff (Rule 64).

[30] Henri de Curzon, La Règle du Temple, La Société de L’Histoire de France, Paris (1886), in Librairie Renouard: “manner and establishment… we heard” (Rule 3); “presented… the customs and observances… to make all known” (Rule 7); priestly origins “considered and examined through diligence” (Rule 8).

[31] Malcolm Barber & Keith Bate, The Templars: Selected Sources, Manchester University Press (2002), p.8.

[32] Michael Lamy, Les Templiers: Ces Grand Seigneurs aux Blancs Manteaux, Auberon (1994), Bordeaux (1997), p.28.

[33] Pope Innocent II, Omne Datum Optimum (29 March 1139), translated in: Malcolm Barber & Keith Bate, The Templars: Selected Sources, Manchester University Press (2002), pp.59-64.

[34] Hector Avalos, How Archaeology Killed Biblical History, Lecture Video, Minnesota Atheists Conference, USA (October 21, 2007), Part 1, “By 1900 AD… Solomon had a kingdom that stretched from Egypt to Iraq” (at 12:30 min); Hector Avalos holds a Masters in Theological Studies from Harvard Divinity School, and Ph.D. in Biblical Studies from Harvard University.

[35] Old Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), I Kings 4:21.

[36] Charles Van der Pool, The Apostolic Bible Polyglot: Greek-English Interlinear, 2nd Edition, The Apostolic Press, Newport, Oregon (2013), I Kings 4:21.

[37] NAS Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, The Lockman Foundation (1981), Greek Dictionary: “Heos”, “Horion”.

[38] Old Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), I Kings 4:21.

[39] Old Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), I Kings 4:30.

[40] Charles Van der Pool, The Apostolic Bible Polyglot: Greek-English Interlinear, 2nd Edition, The Apostolic Press, Newport, Oregon (2013), I Kings 4:30.

[41] NAS Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, The Lockman Foundation (1981), Greek Dictionary: “Plethos”.

[42] J. Huehnergard, A Grammar of Akkadian, Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake (2005).

[43] Andrew George, Babylonian and Assyrian: A History of Akkadian, in J.N. Postgate (Editor), Languages of Iraq, Ancient and Modern, British School of Archaeology in Iraq, London (2007), pp.31-71.

[44] William L. Moran, The Amarna Letters, 1st Edition, Johns Hopkins University Press (1992), p.43.

[45] Old Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), I Kings 1:39: “Zadok the Priest took an horn of oil out of the tabernacle, and anointed Solomon. And… all the people said, God save King Solomon.”

[46] James Strong, The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, “Strong’s Concordance”, Jennings & Graham, Cincinnati (1890), “Melek”, No.4428; “Sedeq”, No.6666.

[47] Van der Toorn, Becking & Van der Horst, Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, 1st Edition (1995), 2nd Revised Edition, Eerdmans Publishing (1999), “Elyon”, “Shalem”.

[48] Willard M. Swartley, Covenant of Peace, Eerdman’s Publishing (2006), p.255; Gary Staats, A Christological Commentary on Hebrews (2012), p.71.

[49] Old Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), “And the king said unto Zadok, Carry back the Ark of God into the city” (II Samuel 15:25); “The king said also unto Zadok the priest, Art not thou a seer?” (II Samuel 15:27); God says: “But the priests… the sons of Zadok, that kept the charge of my sanctuary when the children of Israel went astray from me” (Ezekiel 44:15); “It shall be for the priests that are sanctified of the sons of Zadok; which have kept my charge, which went not astray when the children of Israel went astray, as the Levites went astray.” (Ezekiel 48:11).

[50] James Strong, The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, “Strong’s Concordance”, Jennings & Graham, Cincinnati (1890), “Melek”, No.4428; “Sedeq”, No.6666.

[51] Old Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), Genesis 14:18: “Melchizedek king of Salem… was the priest of the most high God.”

[52] New Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), Hebrews 7:1-2: “Melchisedec, king of Salem, priest of the most high God… first being by interpretation King of Righeousness, and after that also King of Salem, which is, King of Peace”.

[53] Van der Toorn, Becking & Van der Horst, Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, 1st Edition (1995), 2nd Revised Edition, Eerdmans Publishing (1999), “Elyon”, “Shalem”.

[54] New Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), Hebrews 7:1-3: “Melchisedec… priest of the most high God… without father, without mother, without descent [genealogy], having neither beginning of days, nor end of life; but… abideth a priest continually.”
[55] Ian Shaw & Paul Nicholson, British Museum Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, British Museum Press, London (1995), The American University in Cairo Press, Cairo (1996), “Nubia”, pp.204-205.

[56] Juris Zarins, Early Pastoral Nomadism and the Settlement of Lower Mesopotamia, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, Issue 280, pp.31-65.

[57] Ian Shaw & Paul Nicholson, British Museum Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, British Museum Press, London (1995), The American University in Cairo Press, Cairo (1996), “Nubia”, p.206.

[58] New Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), Genesis 14:18-20; Hebrews 7:1.

[59] New Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), Hebrews 7:9: “Levi also, who receiveth tithes, payed tithes in [to] Abraham. For… Melchisedec met him.”

[60] New Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), I Kings 1:39: “Zadok the Priest took an horn of oil out of the tabernacle, and anointed Solomon. And… all the people said, God save King Solomon.”

[61] New Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), Hebrews 5:5; 5:6; 5:10.

[62] Charles Van der Pool, The Apostolic Bible Polyglot: Greek-English Interlinear, 2nd Edition, The Apostolic Press, Newport, Oregon (2013), Hebrews 5:5; 5:6; 5:10.

[63] James Strong, The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, “Strong’s Concordance”, Jennings & Graham, Cincinnati (1890), “Archiereus”, No.749.

[64] New Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), Hebrews 5:6, 5:10, 6:20, 7:17, 7:20.

[65] Charles Van der Pool, The Apostolic Bible Polyglot: Greek-English Interlinear, 2nd Edition, The Apostolic Press, Newport, Oregon (2013), Hebrews 5:6, 5:10, 6:20, 7:17, 7:20.

[66] James Strong, The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, “Strong’s Concordance”, Jennings & Graham, Cincinnati (1890), “Kata”, No.2596; “Taxis”, No.5010.

[67] New Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), Hebrews 5:1, 10:21.

[68] Sir Alan G. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar: The Study of Hieroglyphs, Ashmolean Museum of Oxford University, Griffith Institute, Oxford (1927), “Aten” (Spirit of Sun Rays = Christian “Holy Spirit” or “Power of God”), List of Hieroglyphic Signs (pp.438 et seq.): “Aten”, N8; “Ka” (“Spirit”, Hands used on the Aten rays), D28.

[69] Donald B. Redford, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, The American University in Cairo Press (2001), Vol.1, “Aten”, p.157.
[70] Sir Alan G. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar: The Study of Hieroglyphs, Ashmolean Museum of Oxford University, Griffith Institute, Oxford (1927), “Aten”, N8.

[71] Donald B. Redford, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, The American University in Cairo Press (2001), Vol.1, “Aten”, p.156.

[72] Donald B. Redford, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, The American University in Cairo Press (2001), Vol.1, “Aten”, pp.157-158.

[73] New World Encyclopedia, Paragon House Publishers (September 2013), “Egyptian Book of the Dead”, “Spell 125: The Negative Confessions”.

[74] Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature: A Book of Readings, Volume 2, University of California Press (1976), Part 3: “From the Book of the Dead”, “Chapter 125” at p.124.

[75] Sir Earnest Alfred Wallis Budge, The Book of the Dead (1895), Grammercy Books, Random House Publishing, New York (1999), official translation by 19th century archaeologists, Chapter CXXV (125): “The Negative Confession”, from the Papyrus of Ani, at p.576.

[76] Ian Shaw & Paul Nicholson, British Museum Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, The Trustees of the British Museum, London (1995), The American University in Cairo Press (1996), “Stele”, p.278.

[77] New Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), Genesis 14:18-20.

[78] Sir Alan G. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar: The Study of Hieroglyphs, Ashmolean Museum of Oxford University, Griffith Institute, Oxford (1927), “Se Neter” (“Infuse with God” = Christian “Consecrate”), List of Hieroglyphic Signs (pp.438 et seq.): “S NTR” (“Consecrate”), S29-R8, R8-T22-X1-D21; “NTR” (“God”, Holiness, Astral), R8, R8-N14.

[79] Richard H. Wilkinson, The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson, London (2000), pp.12-13, p.72.

[80] Ian Shaw & Paul Nicholson, British Museum Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, The Trustees of the British Museum, London (1995), The American University in Cairo Press, Cairo (1996), “Priests”, p.228.

[81] Sir Alan G. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar: The Study of Hieroglyphs, Ashmolean Museum of Oxford University, Griffith Institute, Oxford (1927), “List of Hieroglyphic Signs” (pp.438 et seq.), “Egyptian-English Vocabulary” (pp.549 et seq.), “English-Egyptian Vocabulary” (pp.605 et seq.).

[82] Sir Alan G. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar: The Study of Hieroglyphs, Ashmolean Museum of Oxford University, Griffith Institute, Oxford (1927), “Immy Sitaa” (“Initiate” = Christian “Acolyte”), List of Hieroglyphic Signs (pp.438 et seq.): “IMY” (“who is in”), M17-Z11-G17-Z4, Z11, Z11-G17; “ST A” (library, “place of records archive”), Q1-X1- D36-Y1, Q1-X1-O1-D36,Y2.

[83] Sir Alan G. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar: The Study of Hieroglyphs, Ashmolean Museum of Oxford University, Griffith Institute, Oxford (1927), “Khry Hebit” (“Lector Priest” = Christian “Deacon”), List of Hieroglyphic Signs (pp.438 et seq.): “XRY HBT” (“Lector Priest”), V28-T28-D58, W5A-A1, W5, T28-D21-V28-D58-W3-N5-A1; “XRY A” (“Apprentice, assistant”), T28-D21-D36-Z1-A1; “XRY” (base level, “ground floor”, “lower”), T28-D21-Z4; “HBT” (“ritual book”), V28-D58-X1-W3-V12, W4-X1-Y1.

[84] Sir Alan G. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar: The Study of Hieroglyphs, Ashmolean Museum of Oxford University, Griffith Institute, Oxford (1927), “Hem Wab” (“Priest of Purity” = Christian Ordained “Priest”), List of Hieroglyphic Signs (pp.438 et seq.): “HM KA” (“soul priest”), D375-A1, D31, D375-M17-M17-D40-A1; “WAB” (“Wab Priest”), D60-N35A-A1, D60-A1;

[85] Sir Alan G. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar: The Study of Hieroglyphs, Ashmolean Museum of Oxford University, Griffith Institute, Oxford (1927), “Hem Neter” (“Priest of God” = Christian “Monsignor”), List of Hieroglyphic Signs (pp.438 et seq.): “HM NTR” (“prophet”), R8-U36; “HM KA” (“soul priest”), D375-A1, D31, D375-M17-M17-D40-A1; “HM” (“majesty”), U36-A40, U36-Z1-G7; “NTR” (“God”), R8-N14.

[86] Sir Alan G. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar: The Study of Hieroglyphs, Ashmolean Museum of Oxford University, Griffith Institute, Oxford (1927), “Sesh Mediw Neter” (“Scribe of the Word of God” = Christian “Doctor of Divinity”), List of Hieroglyphic Signs (pp.438 et seq.): “SSh” (“Scribe”), Y3-A1, O34-N37-Y1; “MDW NTR” (“Word of God”), R8-S43-D46-G43-A2, R8-S43-Y2, S43-D46-G43-Y1-Z2-R8.

[87] Sir Alan G. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar: The Study of Hieroglyphs, Ashmolean Museum of Oxford University, Griffith Institute, Oxford (1927), “Sem Tery” (“High Priest” = Christian Consecrated “Bishop”), List of Hieroglyphic Signs (pp.438 et seq.): “SM” (“priest”), S29-G17-A1; “TRY” (“high priest”), D1-Q3-Z4, T8, D1-Q3.

[88] Sir Alan G. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar: The Study of Hieroglyphs, Ashmolean Museum of Oxford University, Griffith Institute, Oxford (1927), “Meti N Sa” (“Arch High Priest” = Christian “Archbishop”), List of Hieroglyphic Signs (pp.438 et seq.): “MTY N SA” (“controller of priestly phyle”), D52-X1-N35-V16, D51-X1-Z4-A1-N35-V17-A1-Z2.

[89] Sir Alan G. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar: The Study of Hieroglyphs, Ashmolean Museum of Oxford University, Griffith Institute, Oxford (1927), “Miter Sem Tery” (“Master High Priest” = Christian “Cardinal”), List of Hieroglyphic Signs (pp.438 et seq.): “MTR” (master or teacher, “instruct” and “exhibit virtues” as teaching), D52-X1-D21; “SM” (“priest”), S29-G17-A1; “TRY” (“high priest”), D1-Q3-Z4, T8, D1-Q3.

[90] Sir Alan G. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar: The Study of Hieroglyphs, Ashmolean Museum of Oxford University, Griffith Institute, Oxford (1927), “Miter Neter Tepi” (“First Teacher of God” = Christian “Pontiff”), List of Hieroglyphic Signs (pp.438 et seq.): “MTR” (teacher, “instruct” and “exhibit virtues” as teaching), D52-X1-D21; “NTR” (“God”, Holiness, Astral), R8, R8-N14; “TPY” (“First High Priest”), D1-Q3-Z4, D1-Q3, T8; “TP” (Pontiff, “Chief” High Priest), D1-Z1, D1-Q3.

[91] Montague Rhodes James, The Apocryphal New Testament, Oxford University Press (1707), Clarendon Press, Oxford (1924), Acts of Thomas, 27.

[92] Montague Rhodes James, The Apocryphal New Testament, Oxford University Press (1707), Clarendon Press, Oxford (1924), Pistis Sophia, 36, pp.46-47.

[93] Old Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), Proverbs 9:1.

[94] Richard H. Wilkinson, The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson, London (2000), Chapter 5, “Western Thebes: Medinet Habu”, p.193; “Chronology of the Temple Builders”, p.12.

[95] New Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), Matthew 16:19.

[96] Sir Alan G. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar: The Study of Hieroglyphs, Ashmolean Museum of Oxford University, Griffith Institute, Oxford (1927), “Zez Demid Mat Niwet Per” (“Move to Bind the Heavens by the Lower Heaven of the Temple”), List of Hieroglyphic Signs (pp.438 et seq.): “ZHZ” (Move, “shake” as a “flagellum”), S45; “DMD” (Bind, “Unite” as “knotted strips of cloth” bound together), S23; “SNW” (Bind, “cartouche” by “rope encircling a region” being “bound” to close the circle), V9; “MAT” (heavens, realm of God, as “kind of land”), Aa-6; “NIWT” (“lower heaven”), N35-X1-O49-N50, O49-X1-Z1, O49; “NIWTY” (divine house), O49-G4; “PR” (“Temple”), O49.

[97] Sir Alan G. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar: The Study of Hieroglyphs, Ashmolean Museum of Oxford University, Griffith Institute, Oxford (1927), “Neterwoo” (“Gods” = Christian “Angels” and “Saints”), List of Hieroglyphic Signs (pp.438 et seq.): “NTRW” (Holies, such as Angels or Saints, mistranslated as “Gods”), R8-R8-R8, (Prophets speaking Holiness) R8-N35-M6-M6-M6; “HM NTR” (“Prophet” as a Saint), R8-U36; “NTR” (Holiness as Saintly: flag), R8, (Astral as Angelic: flag-star), R8-N14; “TRY” (Holiness or Divinity, as “high priest”), D1-Q3-Z4, T8, D1-Q3; “NIWTYW” (People, “citizens”, as “of” or “from” the Temple complex) O49-X1-G4-A1-Z2; “DWT NTR” (“Netherworld”: circled star), N15.

[98] Sir Alan G. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar: The Study of Hieroglyphs, Ashmolean Museum of Oxford University, Griffith Institute, Oxford (1927), “Dewit Neter” (“Netherworld” as heavenly realm), List of Hieroglyphic Signs (pp.438 et seq.): “DWT NTR” (“Netherworld”: circled star), N15.

[99] Old Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), Isaiah 41:21-23, “Produce your cause, saith the Lord; bring forth your strong reasons… Shew the things that are to come hereafter, that we may know that ye are gods; yea, do good.”; Psalm 82:1-7, “God standeth in the congregation of the mighty; He judgeth among the gods. … I have said, Ye are gods, and all of you are children of the Most High.”

[100] Old Testament, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990), John 10:34-35, “Jesus answered them, Is it not written in your law, ‘I said, Ye are gods’? If he called them gods, unto whom the word of God came, and the scripture cannot be broken.”

[101] The Vatican, The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908), Volume 4, “Councils”, “III. Historical Sketch of Ecumenical Councils”, Part 7, p.425.

[102] The Vatican, The Catholic Encyclopedia (1911), Volume 11, “Nicaea, Councils of”, “II. Second Council of Nicaea”, p.46.

[103] The Holy Bible, Authorized King James Version (AKJV), Cambridge University Press (1990): For the Ark of the Covenant… “make one cherub [angel] on the one end, and the other cherub on the other end.” (Exodus 25:19; Numbers 7:89); For the Temple of Solomon: “And it was made with cherubims [angels]… From the ground unto above the door were cherubims… and on the wall of the Temple.” (Ezekiel 41:18-20); Confirmed in the New Testament: “And over it the cherubims [angels] of glory shadowing the mercy seat” (Hebrews 9:5).